## News

## The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2020 was awarded to a mathematician

This year Nobel prize in Physics is awarded for two independent contributions. One half was awarded to Roger Penrose for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity, the other half jointly to Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy.

Roger Penrose is an eminent British mathematician and mathematical physicist. He is Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford. Penrose has made contributions to the mathematical physics of general relativity and cosmology. This year he was awarded half of the Nobel prize for Physics for his analysis of black hole formation in general relativity. His main contribution is the proof that the curvature singularity of a black hole is not an artefact of the symmetry, a common belief at the time, but inevitably forms as long as a trapped surface exists. In other words, as long as there are an apparent horizon a curvature singularity forms independent on the shape of the horizon. This is an extremely important discovery as it demonstrates that perturbations and deviations from spherical (or axial) symmetry do not destroy the structure of a black hole proving that black holes are a robust prediction of the theory of general relativity. Among his numerous other contributions is the formulation of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, stating that singularities need to be hidden from an observer at infinity by the event horizon of a black hole.

Reinhard Genzel is a German astrophysicist, co-director of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and Andrea Mia Ghez is an American astronomer and professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at UCLA. They both lead groups of astronomers that, since the early 1990s, have focused on a region called Sagittarius A* at the centre of our galaxy. The measurements of these two groups agree, with both finding an extremely heavy, invisible object that pulls on the jumble of stars, causing them to rush around at dizzying speeds. Around four million solar masses are packed together in a region no larger than our solar system. Their pioneering work has given us the most convincing evidence yet of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.

## Tenth International Conference on Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage—DiPP2020

The Tenth International Conference on Digital Presentation and Preservation of Cultural and Scientific Heritage—DiPP2020 aims at presenting innovative results, research projects, and applications in the field of digitisation, documentation, archiving, representation, and preservation of global and national tangible and intangible cultural and scientific heritage. The main focus is to provide open access to digitised cultural heritage and to set up sustainable policies for its continuous digital preservation and conservation. The priority area is the digital presentation and preservation of cultural and historical objects under conditions of risk, including those from the Burgas region.

The forum will demonstrate innovative technologies and prototypes, including digital repositories, digital archives, virtual museums, and digital libraries, which result from established practices and achievements in the field. Representatives of public and specialised libraries, museums, galleries, archives, centers, both national and foreign research institutions, and universities are invited to participate and exchange experiences, ideas, knowledge, and best practices of the field.

DiPP2020 Programme is available at: http://dipp2020.math.bas.

## Greta Panova, University of Southern California, is the winner of the IMI prize for 2020

Greta Panova, associate professor at the University of Southern California, is the recipient of the IMI Prize for 2020.

Greta Panova was born in Sofia. She graduated from the National High-School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences in Sofia “Acad. Lyubomir Chakalov”. As a high-school student, she participated in three International Math Olympiads (1999 in Romania, 2000 in South Korea, 2001 in the USA) and won two silver and one gold medal.

She graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2005 with a Bachelor’s degree, received a Master’s degree from the University of California Berkeley in 2006, and finished her Ph.D. at Harvard in 2011 under the supervision of Richard Stanley.

In 2011, Greta Panova received a Simons Postdoctoral Fellowship at the University of California Los Angeles, intermittently she was also a postdoc at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (Berkeley) in 2012. In 2014 she became an Assistant Professor at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn), promoted to Associate Professor with tenure in 2018. Since 2018, she has been an Associate Professor at the University of Southern California. In 2017-2018 she was a von Neumann Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. She has also held invited Visiting Professorship positions at Institute Henry Poincare (Paris) in 2017, Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing (Berkeley) in 2018 and Mittag-Leffler Institute (Stockholm) in 2020.

Throughout her studies and career, she has been a recipient of National Science Foundation awards, research fellowships, and other awards, including a third prize at the Putnam competition as an undergraduate and the best student paper award at the Formal Power Series and Algebraic Combinatorics Conference (Reykjavik, 2011). Besides the visiting positions, she has been a plenary speaker at the Formal Power Series and Algebraic Combinatorics conference (London, 2017), Algebraic and Enumerative Combinatorics in Okayama conference (Japan, 2018), Graduate Combinatorics Conference at Max-Planck Institute in Leipzig (Germany, 2019) and several regional Combinatorics conferences.

Greta Panova works in the area of Algebraic Combinatorics and its applications in Computational Complexity Theory, Probability, and Statistical Mechanics. She has about 40 papers, among them publications in the Journal of the AMS, Advances in Mathematics, Annals of Probability. Many of results concern representation-theoretic multiplicities (notably the Kronecker coefficients of the symmetric group) and their use in the Geometric Complexity Theory for the study of computational lower and the separation of computational complexity classes, in particular disproving some of the main conjectures in the approach to proving the algebraic version of P vs NP. She has also applied symmetric function theory and other algebraic and combinatorial tools to reveal the limiting probabilistic behavior of dimer models in Statistical Mechanics.

The IMI Prize will be presented during the International Conference “Mathematics Days of in Sofia” in 2021.

## 14 March – the International Day of Mathematics

The International Day of Mathematics (IDM) is a worldwide celebration. Each year on March 14 all countries will be invited to participate through activities for both students and the general public in schools, museums, libraries, and other spaces.

March 14 was chosen as the date for the IDM because it was already celebrated in many countries as Pi Day, based on the fact that some countries write it as 3/14 and the mathematical constant π is approximately 3.14. The IDM celebration expands Pi Day to include the whole spectrum of mathematics.

Every year IDM will announce a new theme to flavor the celebration, spark creativity and bring light to connections between mathematics and all sorts of fields, concepts, and ideas.

The theme for 2020 is **Mathematics is Everywhere****. **For more information visit https://everywhere.idm314.org/.

The International Day of Mathematics project is led by the International Mathematical Union with the support of numerous international and regional organizations from all over the world. It was proclaimed by UNESCO on the 40th session of the General Conference, November 26, 2019. The first celebration will be held tomorrow – March 14, 2020.

The IDM website is the main hub for the International Day of Mathematics, online at www.idm314.org.

## International Center for Mathematical Sciences – Sofia at the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics organizes educational workshop on Hodge Theory and Local Systems

In the period March 3-5, 2020, the newly established International Center for Mathematical Sciences – Sofia (ICMS-Sofia) and the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences are organizing a series of lectures on Hodge theory and local systems. The goal of this workshop is to introduce a new cutting edge area in modern Mathematics.

The main speaker will be Prof. Carlos Simpson, CNRS, Université Côte d’Azur, Nice.

Other lecturers will be Prof. Alexander Efimov (Steklov Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences), Prof. Ludmil Katzarkov (University of Miami, USA; Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation), Prof. Viсtor Przyjalkowski (Steklov Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and International Laboratory of Mirror Symmetry and Automorphic Forms, National Research University Higher School of Economic Moscow), Prof. Dmitry Kaledin (Steklov Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation).

The Workshop “Hodge Theory and Local Systems” is the first event at ICMS-Sofia. The purpose of this new center, supported by the Bulgarian Government, is popularizing and developing cutting edge science, and connecting the young Bulgarian scientists with the world’s leading researchers. More workshops will follow.

For more information about important dates and deadlines please visit ICMS-Sofia website.

**Donation Campaign
“IMI Mathematics Award”**

BIC: UNCRBGSF

IBAN: BG32UNCR76303100117336

Address: IMI-BAS, 8 Acad. G. Bonchev Str., 1113 Sofia

VAT Number: BG000665249